Solar fotovoltaica para poder decirle “no” a Iberdrola

Solar fotovoltaica para poder decirle “no” a Iberdrola

Cubierta fotovoltaica de cuatro kilovatios, una batería de 30 kilovatios hora… y a vivir. José Antonio Santamaría quiso enganchar su casa nueva a la red de Iberdrola, pero le pusieron tantas pegas –de tiempo y dinero– que al final le preguntó a su primo Juan Carlos Ausín que cómo funcionaba eso de las placas solares. Y Juan Carlos, que es ingeniero industrial eléctrico y doctorado por la Universidad de Manchester, se puso manos a la obra, hizo cálculos… y a vivir. El sistema -nos cuenta Ausín- lleva ya cinco meses en funcionamiento y el grupo electrógeno que le sirve de respaldo solo ha sido encendido -«de forma automática», recalca- en cinco ocasiones: solo cinco días de los 134 que lleva funcionando.

Solar fotovoltaica para poder decirle “no” a Iberdrola

Doctorado en el área de la Generación Distribuida y las Redes Eléctricas, Juan Carlos Ausín ha pasado los últimos quince años de su vida enganchado a las energías renovables, trabajando en firmas como Gamesa, Ibaia Energía o Ennera (empresa vasca especializada en minieólica). El caso es que hace unos meses Ausín decidió emprender viaje en solitario y, desde entonces, proyecta instalaciones de energías renovables y desempeña labores de consultoría para otras empresas. De momento (comenzó a principios de 2016), ha firmado “una instalación de un aerogenerador de una microrred en Usurbil (Guipúzcoa)” y ha dimensionado la cubierta fotovoltaica –autoconsumo aislado con baterías– que disfruta, desde hace apenas cinco meses, su primo, agricultor en Sotillo de la Ribera, Burgos (foto). La instalación suministra electricidad a toda la casa: «iluminación, frigorífico, lavadora, lavavajillas, horno, microondas y hasta una cocina de inducción son, entre otras, las cargas», cuenta Ausín.

“Cuando José Antonio me habló por primera vez de todo esto –explica el ingeniero–, me dijo que le habían puesto mil pegas y que había empezado a darle vueltas a eso de la energía solar, pero que no tenía la certeza de que funcionara… y que no sabía si podía fiarse de las baterías, y que si eso del autoconsumo era ilegal… El caso es que me dijo ‘¿y tú qué opinas?’ y yo le dije que pidiera presupuesto y que luego lo valorase. Así lo hizo, y me mostró varios presupuestos”, algunos de los cuales resultó que doblaban en el precio a los otros. Así que este ingeniero industrial eléctrico se puso con ello, “desarrollé unos modelos para simulación, estuvimos midiendo cargas -lo que consumía cada electrodoméstico- para hacer una estimación de cuál iba a ser el consumo diario, y, a partir de esas medidas, hicimos un dimensionado, compramos los componentes y lo montamos”. ¿Conclusión? 15.000 euros de instalación: las placas, las baterías, un grupo electrógeno diésel como respaldo (4,5 kilovatios)… y a vivir. Abajo, datos proporcionados por el ingeniero, proyectista y en este caso también instalador Juan Carlos Ausín.

Por el camino, casi dos años de historia, que ese fue el tiempo transcurrido entre que José Antonio comenzó a mover papeles para enganchar su casa a la red y el día en que pudo empezar a vivir efectivamente en su “hogar, dulce hogar” con cubierta fotovoltaica. “Sí, como José Antonio no conseguía el punto de conexión, pues se tuvo que ir de alquiler a un piso en Aranda de Duero. Y allí ha estado año y pico, dos años. Porque tenía toda la obra hecha… menos el punto de conexión”. A grandes rasgos –cuenta Ausín–, son diez kilovatios hora de consumo al día. “Así que hemos montado un sistema de 4,1 kilovatios pico y una batería de 30 kilovatios hora. El criterio que he empleado es que el grupo electrógeno no genere más del 5% de la energía que necesita”. La instalación se encuentra en Sotillo de la Ribera, al norte de Aranda, y está siendo habitada ya por una pareja de treintañeros –José Antonio y su novia– que no tiene hijos. Se trasladaron allí hace menos de seis meses: “querían cenar en Nochevieja en su casa y así fue. Desde entonces lleva funcionando la instalación”.

Según Ausín, «el óptimo dimensionado del sistema siempre lleva consigo un excedente de energía FV. La gestión del excedente se realiza automáticamente limitando la salida de la planta solar y evitando así sobrepasar el valor máximo de carga de la batería. Cuando la batería está llena -explica el ingeniero-, el convertidor limita la tensión de batería a un valor contante y manda limitar potencia al inversor solar. Esta energía sobrante se utilizará para alimentar un sistema de calefacción eléctrica en invierno o calentar el agua de un termo eléctrico en verano. De esta forma se consigue disminuir el consumo de energía térmica de la vivienda».

¿Y se ha cumplido el criterio del 5%?
“Bueno, ese balance hace referencia al global anual. Sí puedo decir que, desde mediados de febrero, ya solo ha funcionado con baterías. Probablemente, el grupo electrógeno entrará solo en noviembre, diciembre, enero y febrero. Está bien diseñado para aguantar un tiempo sin sol consumiendo esos diez kilovatios hora al día. Como tiene 30 [las baterías], pues entonces pueden pasar hasta tres días sin sol, consumiendo diez kilovatios hora al día”…  El sistema -concreta Ausín- lleva ya cinco meses en funcionamiento y «el grupo electrógenos solo ha sido encendido de forma automática cinco veces en enero y febrero con un aporte energético de unos 22 kilovatios hora». Se encendió, concretamente, los días 22, 30 y 31 de enero, 1 y 14 de febrero.

El pasado 18 de abril el Diario de Burgos se hacía eco de esta historia. Incidiendo en que la alternativa que Iberdrola le ofrecía era el doble de cara que la instalación solar. “Iberdrola me obligaba a enganchar una línea de alta tensión porque alegaba que no podía conectarme a la existente ya que en la línea de esta zona del pueblo hay poca potencia”, explicaba José Antonio Santamaría al Diario de Burgos. “Decían que si se sumaba una vivienda más se fastidiaba todo”.

La otra opción -explicaba al Diario de Burgos- era arreglar los 92 suministros eléctricos de la línea existente, pero el coste se disparaba hasta los 30.000 euros, “cuando darse de alta no debería llegar ni a los 1.000. La compañía ya tiene problemas con la red y ellos deberían haberlos solventado. Sin embargo, como llegué yo, querían que corriese con todos los gastos. Me informé en el Ministerio de Industria y me dieron la razón, pero, ¿quién gana a Iberdrola en un juicio?”.

Fuente: http://www.energias-renovables.com/articulo/solar-fotovoltaica-para-poder-decirle-a-noa-20160512

 

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